This is our video on compost making, phase 1, where we load manure.
This is our video on compost making, phase 1, where we load manure.
These examples are only meant to inspire you to observe the wonders of nature in your garden. The things that work at Nojoqui might or might not work for you. Each garden has its own special, unique ecosystem. Take the time to walk in your garden every day. Walk it with a quiet, reflective, observant mind. Let nature talk to you.
There is an old Chinese saying:
“The footsteps of the farmer is the best fertilizer.”
Holes In Our Leaves? You Bet!
Nojoqui Farms chooses to rely on the balance of nature, rather than a sterile, insect-free environment which requires the continuous, cyclical application of insecticides. It’s a choice between eating chemical residues, or having a few small holes in the leaves. It’s your choice.
In a field of organically grown vegetables, we find such wonderful insects as assassin bugs, aphid lions and minute pirate bugs. These insects, and many more, devour the bugs that eat plants. We encourage these beneficial insects to fly into our fields and destroy the leaf-eating bugs, so we don’t have to spray our vegetables with insecticides. We will have a few small holes, and maybe a few bugs on our leaves, but we won’t have cancer-causing chemical residues on our leaves.
The best way to avoid addiction to insecticides is to never start using them. If we sprayed to kill the leaf-eating worms, we’d also kill the lady beetles and other beneficial insects that destroy aphids. Then we’d have to spray the aphids, and we’d kill the beneficial lacewings that destroy mites. Very soon, we’d be addicted to insecticides; suffering an endless routine of insect attacks.
Chemical residues cannot always be washed off. Many are systemic; they become part of the plant tissue. Insects, however, can easily be washed off. In most cases, just rinsing the leaves under a faucet will suffice. Occasionally, you may find bugs that seem to stick to the leaves; just dip them in warm water containing a biodegradable soap and then rinse.
Organic foods are known and appreciated for their superior taste and quality, but there are many additional reasons to “go organic.” Health, community, and environment are the primary concerns of the approximately three million consumers who bought organic foods in the United States in 2004.
For individuals and families seeking high nutritional value and reduced risk of exposure to the toxins associated with factory farming practices, organic offers peace of mind.
A commitment to choosing local and regionally produced foods is a core value of the organic movement. In addition to fresher foods and reduced fossil fuel consumption, the profit from the sale of locally produced foods is more likely to find its way back into the community. Consumers and family farmers working together to support such local systems form a sustainable partnership.
Organic farming methods are helping to heal our earth by returning vitality and nutrients to the soil and keeping air and water safe from pollution caused by toxic pesticides and herbicides. Eating organic food is a great way to protect the environment.
Nojoqui (pronounced Nah•ho•wee) Farms is nestled in the grassy, partially wooded rolling hills of southern California. The Chumash, a local Native American Tribe, called this valley Nojoqui, meaning peaceful valley.
Nojoqui Farms is located just five miles from the ocean, giving it an ideal, almost year-round growing season. In the summer, overcast mornings give way to sunny 80- to 90- degree afternoons. In the winter, sunny days are mixed with rainy days and temperatures only occasionally drop below freezing.
We start planting vegetables in December. In April we begin harvesting our abundant array of romaine, red butter, red leaf and green leaf lettuces; green, purple and dino kale; beets, spinach, cilantro, parsley, endive, dandelion, celery and cauliflower.
In the summer and fall, we are harvesting, in addition to some of the above, green bell peppers, red bell peppers, cucumbers, Nojoqui Sweets (onions), garlic, green beans, sunburst squash, yellow squash, zucchini, cherry tomatoes and, always, some surprises. In the fall we are also picking broccoli and cabbage. During the winter, we harvest hardy vegetables such as: cabbage, kale, parsley, chard and leeks. As you can see, we are planting and harvesting something all year.
Why does it cost us more to produce organic vegetables than it costs large factory farms to produce vegetables sold in stores as “conventional” or “commercial”? I believe it is in the economy of scale.
We grow 25 different vegetables on 40 acres. Most commercial farms operate like a factory, growing just one or two types of vegetables. Each occupies 25 or maybe 1000 acres.
Growing many different vegetables increases our biological diversity. This biological diversity deters insects, weeds and disease. (See “Balance of Nature,” “Holes In Our Leaves” and “The Battle of the Beetles” on this web site for more information).
Our main weed killers are a hoe and a person to use it. Simple and effective but somewhat more costly than spraying herbicides.
On a factory farm, the picking crew specializes in one vegetable. They pick only one vegetable all day and often times they pick the same vegetable for many weeks on end. The machine-like pickers become quite efficient at what they do. On our farm the pickers pick many different vegetables everyday. They are not as efficient. One day I observed the workers at a factory farm and timed how long it took them to pick and tie one bunch of parsley. It took about nine seconds. Back on our farm, I timed our pickers at twelve seconds. All those seconds add up – 30 bunches in a box, 50 boxes a day.
We also lose economic efficiency by the size and type of equipment we use. Our fields are smaller, therefore we use smaller tractors and farm implements. It takes us two or times three longer to accomplish the same task as a factory farm. We plant two rows at a time. Large farms plant four, six, sometimes twelve rows at a time. Because, we do not specialize in one or two vegetables, we can not afford the specialized, labor-saving, harvest equipment for each of our 25 vegetables. All of this adds to our costs.
We rely on the fertility of the soil to produce our vegetables instead of chemical fertilizers. To maintain the fertility, we grow green manure crops, such as oat, vetch and bell beans, which we turn back into the soil. This process feeds the microorganism in the soil, which release nutrients to the subsequent vegetable cash crop. (See “The Original World Wide Web” and “green manure” in the Photo Tour on this web site for more information). The green manure crop is not not sold. There are costs in growing the green manure crop and income is lost from not growing a cash-producing crop. Growing green manure crops is well worth the expense; it allows us to produce healthy vegetables which do not need chemical pesticides.
Organic farmers who do not choose to utilize green manure crops in their rotation, use organic fertilizers such as guano, soybean meal, feather meal and chicken manure. These organic fertilizers cost two to ten times more than chemical fertilizers.
When you eat chemically produced food, you do not pay all the costs at the checkout stand in the supermarket. Not included are the medical expenses caused by eating nutritionally unbalanced, chemically contaminated food; tax dollars to clean-up the environment from the manufacture and use of chemical poisons; tax dollars for the military to defend this country’s supply of oil which is used in the manufacture of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
I was amazed to find out there are hundreds of millions living organisms in this handful of soil. They all form an integrated web of life within the soil. If properly cared for, the soil life will provide all the nutrients needed for optimum plant growth.
If we had a microscope, we could see one-celled bacteria devouring dead leaves and roots.
We would see other bacteria attaching themselves to roots, taking nitrogen from the air and then supplying the host plant with nitrogen; and, in return, we would see the host plant giving the bacteria simple carbon compounds.
To our amazement, we would see stands of fungal hyphae pushing their way though the soil and binding soil particles together, creating soil aggregates.
We would see protozoa dining on bacteria & fungi and, in the process, releasing nitrogen.
If we were lucky we might see a fungus shaping itself into a noose, baiting this trap, getting ready to snag a nematode.
We would also see nematodes puncturing the cell walls of fungi and sucking out the internal contents. Or gulping down whole protozoa. Plant-invading nematodes have gotten a lot of attention, but they are only a small fraction of total nematodes. The vast majority of nematodes are beneficial to plants and play a critical role in the soil foodweb. They dine on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and other nematodes. And in the process of eating and excreting, they release many nutrients that are readily available to plants.
We would also see earthworms, springtails and a myriad of arthropods, feasting on plant residues and microorganisms and leaving behind supercharged trails of soil.
Surrounding the roots is the narrow band called the rhizosphere. Here, the soil life is very abundant and extremely active. Roots slough-off plant cells and release proteins, sugars and other substances. These roots exudates attract bacteria which release nutrients for the plant. Evidence exists that roots release certain types of exudates to attract certain types of bacteria which release the exact nutrients the plant needs. In other words, the plant controls the release of nutrients by the type and quantity of exudates. When we concentrate on feeding the plant instead of the soil, we can interrupt these vital functions causing imbalances, disease and insect attacks.
I allow the fine-tuned natural processes of the soil do their job.
How does Nojoqui properly take care of these living organisms in the soil?
In 1993, I had a bad infestation of cucumber beetles. Oddly enough, cucumber beetles didn’t like my cucumbers. But they loved my squash, melons, spinach, chard, beets and green beans. To help control the beetles, I applied the ground-up root of a tropical plant called Rotenone. Unlike a chemical insecticide that persists in the environment for weeks, Rotenone breaks down in sunlight in a few hours. I had to reapply it every few days.
My second crop of green beans in 1993 had just poked their leaves out of the ground on a sunny June Wednesday. I sprayed them with Rotonone on Thursday. On Saturday, hordes of beetles moved in and completely devoured the tiny green bean plants. If I had sprayed them with a chemical insecticide, the insecticide would have protected them for weeks and you would have had my green beans in the latter part of August, insecticide residue and all. But I didn’t.
Organic farming not only provides you with chemical-free produce, but also benefits me as the farmer. I do not have to handle chemical poisons or breath their fumes and risk serious chemical contamination. The hundreds of birds and other wildlife that populate our farm appreciate organic farming also!
Eventually, I noticed that the bean plants tolerated the swarms of beetles feasting on them. The first few leaves were almost entirely eaten, but the plants eventually grew leaves that were unappetizing to the beetles and provided a bounty of tender green beans. I no longer spray with Rotenone.
I also learned to grow squash plants in a greenhouse instead of planting the seeds directly in the field. Then I transplant them into the field when they are strong enough to withstand the beetle attacks. I do not plant spinach, beets and chard in the summer. When I do, the beetles make “Swiss cheese” out of the leaves. I have learned not to try to conquer nature, but to cooperate with nature.
“Natura enim non imperatur, nisi parendo.” — Sir Francis Bacon
“Nature cannot be ordered about, except by obeying her.”
If we set a microscope in the soil, we could see tiny, one-celled bacteria devouring the remnants of leaves and root hairs. We would see fungi disintegrating the larger, hard-to-digest roots and stems. We would see protozoa dining on bacteria and fungi and, in the process, releasing nitrogen and other nutrients needed by plants.
We would see roots releasing substances into the soil to attract and fed bacteria. In return the bacteria would release compounds that stimulate plant growth and help defend the roots from pathogens.
We would see other bacteria attaching themselves to roots, taking nitrogen from the air and then supplying the host plants with the essential nitrogen; we would see the plant giving to the bacteria, simple carbon compounds to encourage them to keep feeding them nitrogen.
If we were lucky we might see a fungus shaping itself into a noose lying in wait to snag a nematode for dinner or a nematode puncturing the cell wall of a fungus and sucking out the internal contents. We might see a nematode gulping down a whole protozoa. Plant-invading nematodes have gotten a lot of attention, but they are only a small fraction of total nematodes. The vast majority of nematodes are beneficial to plants and play a critical role in the soil foodweb. They dine on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and other nematodes. In the process of eating and excreting, they release many nutrients that are readily available to plants.
To our amazement, we would see stands of fungal hyphae pushing their way between soil particles and binding soil particles together, creating soil aggregates.
We could see earthworms, springtails and a myriad of arthropods, feasting on plant residues and other soil life and leaving behind trails of supercharged soil.
With all this already happening in the soil, is tilling really necessary?
In a teaspoon of rich, fertile soil are hundreds of millions of living organisms. They form an interdependent web of life within the soil. We are just learning how this soil foodweb works. We do know that, if the web is properly taken care of, it will provide all the nutrients needed for optimum plant growth.
Tillage disrupts this foodweb. The obvious example is the cutting in half of earthworms. The myth many of us learned as children, is not true. When you cut an earth worm in half, you do not get two earthworms.
Tillage also destroys the long strands of mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi exist in a symbiotic association with plant roots. Mycorrhizae attach themselves to the roots and act as root extensions, allowing plants to access more soil. They can be yards long.
Tillage also destroys soil aggregates. Aggregates give soil its crumbly structure. They are small clumps of many soil particles, that contain open space. Sticky gums and gels, produced by soil bacteria, loosely hold together individual grains of sand, silt, clay and humus. Strands of filamentous fungi and actinomycetes also helps hold the aggregates together. The open spaces between soil particles are called pores and contain water and air. When aggregates are broken apart into individual particles, many pores are eliminated. Plant roots need the empty space between soil particles through which to easily extend their roots. Also, without adequate air in the soil, anaerobic conditions exist which cause root diseases. In addition, most organisms need abundant air in the soil to carry out their many functions.
Imagine a suburban community with all its houses, streets, underground water pipes, and electrical wires. Now imagine a mile-wide rototiller with 500 foot tall blades rumbling through. Is this the effect tillage has on the community that live in our soils?
Hundreds of years ago, before the native grasslands of this country were first put to the plow, tall, green, nutritious grass grew without the help of man. The soil was deep, rich, and dark brown. How did it get that way? The soil had not been plowed or fertilized. How did nature do that?
We till the soil to loosen it and introduce air. But then, we drive over it with tractors and other farm equipment, smashing it back down and squeezing the air out. By the time harvest is over, the soil resembles a concrete slab. To plant our next crop, we need a huge tractor to loosen it back up, and all kinds of implements to pulverize it into submission. Then during the next growing season, we smash it back down again only to work it back up again. This scenario repeats itself year after year.
Is there a way out of this vicious cycle? This is what I am trying to discover with my conservation tillage experiments.